Quantum Computing – Thesaurus

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You do not have to show again the clock too far, and quantum computing was extra of a freak concept than a actuality. However now its progress appears to be accelerating – the patent system (because it has with different rising applied sciences) stands as a document of the super progress that has been made and people now striving ahead are on the forefront.

Simply final week, the European Patent Workplace printed the second in a sequence of Quantum Applied sciences Insights experiences, presenting its findings relating to the rise in new filings and the variety of patent households over the previous 30 years, and offering evaluation on how shut they’re. 10% of current European patent purposes on this space have a number of candidates, indicating collaborative analysis world wide.

On this article, we talk about the origins of quantum computing, its current emergence as a definite class within the patent taxonomy area, and statistics over a more moderen time-frame, indicating who’s at present, and who could also be, on the forefront of quantum computing developments.

Peak time

The theoretical chance of quantum computing was first proposed within the 1980’s. In 1994 the so-called Shor algorithm appeared. This was an algorithm which, if run on a hypothetical quantum laptop, would offer a method of discovering prime elements of very massive numbers inside an inexpensive period of time, one thing not doable with typical computer systems however could be of nice significance in the actual world. At the moment, a quantum laptop didn’t actually exist, however the prospect of making use of the algorithm in observe appears to have sparked a surge of curiosity.

The primary demonstrations of precise quantum computing had been reported just a few years later, in 1998. Now, one other 25 years or so later, there are a selection of quantum computer systems. Quantum computing may be thought-about to have moved from an obscure educational analysis subject to an rising expertise receiving important funding. Patent purposes with quantum computing as their material at the moment are showing in growing numbers.

In 2019, this was mirrored within the addition of the Worldwide Patent Classification (IPC) to a definite class associated to quantum computing.:

“G06N 10/00 Quantum computer systems, i.e. laptop techniques primarily based on the phenomena of quantum mechanics [2019.01]”

In 2022 this has been revised to:-

“G06N 10/00 Quantum computing, i.e. info processing primarily based on the phenomena of quantum mechanics [2022.01]

  • G06N 10/20 Quantum computing paradigms, equivalent to quantum circuits or common quantum computer systems [2022.01]
  • G06N 10/40 Bodily realization or architectures for quantum processors or elements for manipulating qubits, equivalent to qubit coupling or qubit management [2022.01]
  • G06N 10/60 Quantum algorithms, eg primarily based on quantum optimization, quantum Fourier rework or Hadamard [2022.01]
  • G06N 10/70 Quantum error correction, detection, or prevention, equivalent to floor symbols or magic state distillation [2022.01]
  • G06N 10/80 Quantum Programming, equivalent to interfaces, languages, or software program growth kits for creating or manipulating applications able to operating on quantum computer systems; platforms for simulating or accessing quantum computer systems, equivalent to cloud quantum computing”

New patent purposes associated to quantum computing, and former purposes reclassified, will now be categorized into the brand new classes. This revision ought to assist the IPC observe developments in distinct areas of quantum computing.

Though, not all earlier purposes associated to quantum computing have truly been reclassified into the brand new quantum computing classes [G06N 10/00, G06N 10/20, G06N 10/40, G06N 10/60, G06N 10/70 or G06N 10/80] It appears possible that the related purposes on the time had been categorized within the extra basic group “G06N 99/00”. With this in thoughts, patenting exercise lately associated to quantum computing may be estimated utilizing the EPO’s Espacenet database.

energy surge

One measure of patenting exercise is the variety of new households of quantum computing patent purposes that seem annually in all international locations coated by the EPO’s Espacenet database. A patent utility suite (which can embrace granted patents) consists of a number of patent publications that relate to the identical invention/technical growth. It might embrace publications in numerous international locations and/or totally different publications in the identical nation (eg publications of an utility after which a patent granted). Typically, all members of the family declare the identical precedence. A brand new household seems with the primary publication of any member of the family by any patent workplace.

From 2016 to 2021, the numbers of quantum computing households in response to the Espacenet database grew considerably, albeit from a really low degree. From the data out there till the top of final 12 months, the expansion pattern will proceed in 2022.

Supply: EPO’s Espacenet, January 2023

Firms just lately lively in quantum computing could also be of specific curiosity. One indicator is the variety of patent utility households related to specific candidates. This can be estimated, however the counting of households relies upon for instance, on how households belonging to associated however legally distinct firms are handled, how households belonging to joint candidates are counted, and particularly how translations of names and variations within the naming of candidates are handled. Nonetheless, the desk signifies the highest fifty candidates when it comes to the variety of new quantum computing households since 2019. These superior fifty have made up about 50% of all new quantum computing households since 2019.

Supply: EPO’s Espacenet, November 2022

By far the vast majority of the highest candidates within the desk above are People or Chinese language. Utilizing precedence international locations for patent utility households as a information to the geographic origin of technical developments/innovations of curiosity to households, it seems that the USA was most steadily the nation of origin of technical developments/innovations on this space of ​​quantum computing, as proven under from 2012 to 2021. Nonetheless That stated, primarily based on an information set by way of the start of November 2022, China seems to have overtaken the USA when it comes to new patent utility households showing in 2022.

Supply: EPO’s Espacenet, November 2022

The principle set and IPC subsets (eg G06N 10/20) devoted to patent utility households can be utilized to understand the important thing technical points of quantum computing which might be of curiosity to patent households.

Supply: EPO’s Espacenet, November 2022

Households can after all be given a couple of IPC designation, i.e. they are often categorized as associated to a couple of main group or subgroup within the IPC, and thus to a couple of side of quantum computing expertise.

Focusing now on European patent purposes, info within the European Patent Workplace’s “Bulletin Search” database signifies that the variety of printed European patent purposes associated to quantum computing has additionally elevated considerably since 2016 (and particularly lately), as is Proven within the chart under is the interval from 2012 to 2022.

Supply: EP Bulletin Search, January 2023

The desk under signifies the highest forty or so candidates by variety of European patent purposes printed within the subject of quantum computing since 2019. These prime candidates account for greater than 80% of all European patent purposes printed within the subject since 2019.

Supply: EP Bulletin Search, January 2023

It might be price noting that in 2019 solely about two dozen totally different candidates had been chargeable for European patent purposes associated to quantum computing; In 2022, about ninety totally different candidates participated. It appears that evidently as curiosity and analysis within the expertise has elevated lately, the variety of candidates has additionally elevated.

Relative to different applied sciences equivalent to AI/Machine Studying, the rise in patent filings directed at quantum computing illustrates the funding and energy that continues to be utilized alongside the trail to quantum benefit.

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